If you would like to read more about glacial archaeology, there is now a steadily increasing number of scientific publications available. We have provided a list here (does not include publications on glaciology, pure GIS-analysis, frozen contexts other than glaciers and ice patches). Publications available for free download, have been supplied with a link.


Andrew T.D. and G. MacKay 2014. The Archaeology and Paleoecology of Alpine Ice Patches: A Global Perspective. Arctic 57(3):iii-vi. (download)
Dixon, E.J., M. Callanan, A. Hafner and P.G. Hare 2014. The Emergence of Glacial Archaeology. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 1.1: 1-9. (download)
Rechlin, R. 2013: Ice Patch Archaeology in Global Perspective: Archaeological Discoveries from Alpine Ice Patches Worldwide and Their Relationship with Paleoclimates. Journal of World Prehistory (download)
Taylor, William et al. 2021. Editorial. New Directions in a Warming World. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 5 (2021) 1–3. (download)


Bjørgo, T., T. Linge, Ø. Skår, S. Rongved & T. Slinning 2015. Fragments of a Late Iron Age Sledge Melted Out of the Vossaskavlen Snowdrift Glacier in Western Norway. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 2: 73-81. (downlo)
Callanan, M. 2010. Northern Snow Patch Archaeology. In C. Westerdahl (ed): A Circumpolar Reappraisal: The Legacy of Gutorm Gjessing (1906.1979). BAR International Series 2154, 2010: 43-54. (download)
Callanan, M. 2012. Central Norwegian Snow Patch Archaeology: Patterns past and present. Arctic 65(5):178-188. (download)
Callanan, M. 2013. Melting snow patches reveal Neolithic archery. Antiquity 87(337):728-745. (download)
Callanan, M. 2014a. Bronze Age Arrows from Norwegian Alpine Snow Patches. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 1.1: 25-49. (download)
Callanan, M. 2014b. Out of the Ice. Doctoral thesis. NTNU. (download)
Callanan, M. 2015. Chronological patterns among archaeological finds from snow patches in Central Norway 1914-2011, in S. Indrelid, K.L. Hjelle & K. Stene (eds.) Exploitation of Outfield Resources: Joint Research at the University Museums of Norway: 55-68. Bergen: University Museum, University of Bergen. (download)
Callanan M. 2016. Managing frozen heritage: Some challenges and responses. Quaternary International, Volume 402: 72–79. (download)
Farbregd, O. 1972. Pilefunn fra Oppdalsfjella. Universitetet i Trondheim. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab, Museet. (download)
Farbregd, O. 2009. Archery history from ancient snow and ice. Brattli (ed.): The 58th International Sachsensymposium, 1-5 September 2007. Vitark 7: 156-70.
Finstad, E., J.R.P. Martinsen, R. Hole & L. Pilø 2018. Prehistoric and Medieval Skis from Glaciers and Ice Patches in Norway. Journal of Glacial Archaeology, vol. 3. (download)
Finstad, E. and M. Vedeler 2008. En bronsealdersko fra Jotunheimen. Viking 2008: 61-70. (download whole volume)
Hougen, B. 1937. Pilene fra Storhø. Viking 1937:197-204. (download whole volume)
Martinsen, J. 2015. Unmoving Ice Patches and Instances of Baised Recovery Patterns. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 2: 51-72.
Nesje, A. L. Pilø, E. Finstad, B. Solli, V. Wangen, R. Ødegård, K. Isaksen, E. Støren, D. Bakke, L. Andreassen 2012. The climatic significance of artefacts related to prehistoric reindeer hunting exposed at melting ice patches in southern Norway. The Holocene 22(4):485-496. (download)
Pilø, L., E. Finstad, C. Bronk Ramsey, J.R.P. Martinsen, A. Nesje, B. Solli, V. Wangen, M. Callanan and J.H. Barrett 2018. The chronology of reindeer hunting on Norway’s highest ice patches. Royal Society Open Science. (download)
Pilø, L., E. Finstad and J.H. Barrett 2020. Crossing the Ice. An Iron Age to Medieval Mountain Pass at Lendbreen, Norway. Antiquity, vol. 94, issue 374: 437-454 (download)
Pilø, L., J. H. Barrett, T. Eiken, E. Finstad, S. Grønning, J.R. Post-Melbye, A. Nesje, J. Rosvold, B. Solli, R. S. Ødegård 2021: Interpreting archaeological site-formation processes at a mountain ice patch: A case study from Langfonne, Norway. The Holocene (download)
Pilø, L., E. Finstad, E. U. Wammer, J. R. Post-Melbye, A. H. Rømer, Ø. R. Andersen and J. H. Barrett 2021. On a Mountain High: Finding and Documenting Glacial Archaeological Sites During the Anthropocene. Journal of Field Archaeology (download)
Pilø, L. and E. FInstad 2021. Ancient Reindeer Hunting in Oppland, Norway. In: The Gazelle’s Dream. Game Drives of the New and Old Worlds. Edited by Alison Betts and W. Paul van Pelt, p. 81-104. Sydney University Press.
Rosvold J. 2018. Faunal Finds from Alpine Ice: Natural or Archaeological Depositions? Journal of Glacial Archaeology 3.1, 79–108.
Vedeler M. and L.B. Jørgensen 2013. Out of the Norwegian glaciers: Lendbreen – a tunic from the early first millennium AD. Antiquity 87(337):788-801. (download)
Åstveit, L. I. 2007. Høyfjellsarkeologi under snø og is. Global oppvarming, fonnjakt og funn fra snøfonner datert til steinalder. Viking 2007:7-22. (download)


Alterauge, A., S. Providoli, N. Moghaddam, & S. Lösch 2015. Death in the Ice. Re-investigations of the Remains from the Theodul Glacier. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 2: 35-50. (download)
Corneliussen, M, C. auf der Maur and T. Reitmaier 2022. A Glacially Preserved Mesolithic Rock Crystal Extraction Site in the Swiss Alps. Norwegian Archaeological Review (download)
Grosjean, M. et al. 2007. Ice-borne prehistoric finds in the Swiss Alps reflect Holocene glacier fluctuations. Journal of Quaternary Science 22(3):203-207. (download)
Hafner A. 2012. Archaeological Discoveries on Schnidejoch and at Other Ice Sites in the European Alps. Arctic 65(5):189-202. (download)
Hafner, A. 2015 (ed.). Schnidejoch und Lötschenpass. Archäologische Forschungen in den Berner Alpen. Archäologischer Dienst des Kantons Bern.
Junkmanns, J. et al. 2021. The Neolitihic Bowcase from Lenk-Schnidejoch. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 5 (2021) 5–50.
Reitmaier, T., C. auf der Maur, L. Reitmaier-Naef, M. Seifert & C. Walser 2016. Spätmesolitischer Bergkristallabbau auf 2800 m höhe nahe der Fuorcla da Strem Sut (Kr. Uri/Graubünden/CH). Archäologischer Korrespondenzblatt. Jahrgang 46, 2016, heft 2.
Reitmaier-Naef, L. and T. Reitmaier 2015. Cold Ice: A survey and Monitoring Programme of High-Alpine Cultural Heritage in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 2: 25-34. (download)
Rogers, S.R., P. Curdy , M. Eschmann-Richon & R. Lugon 2018. Glacial Archaeology in the Pennine Alps, Switzerland/Italy, 2011–2014. Journal of Glacial Archaeology vol. 3.
Suter, P.J., A. Hafner and K. Glauser 2005. Lenk – Schnidejoch. Funde aus dem Eis – ein vor- und frühgeschichtlicher Passübergang. Archäologie im Kanton Bern. Band 6. (download)
Providoli, S., P. Curdy and P. Elsig 2016. 400 Jahre im Gletschereis. Der Theodulpass bei Zermatt und sein “Söldner”. Reihe Geschichtsmuseum Wallis 13.


Veith, M. & B. N. Castellan 2011. Trauer fordert Gewissheit. Über den Umgang mit Gletscherleichen in Archäologie – Zeitgeschichte – Psychologie. Nearchos Beiheft 9. Forschungen zur Gletscherarchäologie 1.


Ötzi – Popular science
Dickson, J.H., Oeggl, K. and L. Handley 2005. The Iceman Reconsidered. Scientific American (download)
Fleckinger, A. 2011. Ötzi, the Iceman: The Full Facts at a Glance.
Fowler, B. 2011. Iceman: Uncovering The Life And Times Of A Prehistoric Man Found In An Alpine Glacier.
Spindler, K. 2001. The Man in the Ice.
Sulzenbacher, G. 2006. The Glacier Mummy. Discovering the Copper Age with the Iceman.
Zink, A. 2016. Ötzi.

Ötzi – Scientific papers
Pilø, L., Reitmaier, T., Fischer, A., Barrett, J. H., & Nesje, A. (2022). Ötzi, 30 years on: A reappraisal of the depositional and post-depositional history of the find. The Holocene. (download)

The scientific literature published on Ötzi is enormous. This list below contains only a selection :

Bagolini, B., Dalri, L., Lippert, A. and Nothdurfter, H. 1995. Der Mann im Eis: Die Fundbergung 1992 am Tisenjoch, Gem. Schnals, Südtirol. In K. Spindler et al. (ed.): Der Mann im Eis. Neue Funde und Ergebnisse: 3-22. Vienna; New York: Springer.
Baroni, C. and Orombelli, G. 1996. The Alpine “Iceman” and Holocene Climatic Change. Quaternary Research 46: 78-83.
Bereuter, T., Mikenda, W. and Reiter, C. 1997. Iceman’s Mummification – Implications from Infrared Spectroscopical and Histological Studies. Chemistry. A European Journal: 1032-1038.
Egarter Vigl, E. and P. Gostner 2002. Insight: Report of Radiological-Forensic Findings on the Iceman. Journal of Archaeological Science (2002) 29: 323-326. (download)
Lippert, A., Gostner, P., Egarter Vigl, E. and Pernter, P., 2007. Vom Leben und Sterben des Ötztaler Gletschermannes. Germania 85-1 (2007): 1-21.
Heiss, A. and Oeggl, K. 2009. The plant macro-remains from the Iceman site (Tisenjoch, Italian–Austrian border, eastern Alps): new results on the glacier mummy’s environment. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany: 23-35. (download)
Kutschera, W. 2001. 4.4 Radiocarbon dating of the Iceman Ötzi with accelerator mass spectrometry. (download)
Kutschera, W. et al. 2014. Evidence for early human presence at high altitudes in the Ötztal Alps (Austria/Italy). Radiocarbon, Vol 56, Nr 3, 2014, p 923–947. (download)
Kutschera, W. and Müller, W. 2003. “Isotope language” of the Alpine Iceman investigated with AMS and MS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 204: 705-719. (download)
Murphy, W., zur Nedden, D., Gostner, P., Knapp, R., Recheis, W. and Seidler, H. 2003. The Iceman: Discovery and Imaging. Radiology: 614-629.
Oeggl, K. 2009: The significance of the Tyrolean Iceman for the Archaeobotany of Central Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany (2009) 18: 1-11.
Oeggl, K., Kofler, W., Schmidl, A., Dickson, J.H., Egarter-Vigl E. and Gaber, O., 2007. The reconstruction of the last itinerary of “Ötzi”, the Neolithic Iceman, by pollen analyses from sequentially sampled gut extracts. In: Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007): 853-861.  (download)
Pernter, P.,  Gostner, P., Egarter Vigl, E. and Rühli, F. 2007. Radiologic Proof for the Iceman’s cause of death (ca. 5300 BP), Journal of Archaeological Science (2007): 1-3.
Sjøvold, T. 1995, A sensational additional discovery at the finding site of the Iceman at Hauslabjoch. Preliminary report. In K. Spindler et al. (ed.): Der Mann im Eis. Neue Funde und Ergebnisse: 115-118. Vienna; New York: Springer.
Vanzetti, A., Vidale, M., Gallinaro, M., Frayer, D. and Bondioli, L. 2010. The Iceman as a Burial. Antiquity 84: 681–692.
Zink, A., Graefen, A., Oeggl, K., Dickson, J., Leitner, W., Kaufmann, G., Fleckinger, A., Gostner, P. and Egarter-Vigl, E. 2011. The Iceman is not a burial: reply to Vanzetti et al. (2010). Antiquity 2011.


Alix, C., Hare, P.G., Andrews, T.D., and MacKay, G. 2012. A thousand years of lost hunting arrows: Wood analysis of ice patch remains in northwestern Canada. Arctic 65(Suppl. 1):95–117. (download)
Andrews, T.D., G. MacKay and L. Andrew 2014. Archaeological Investigations of Alpine Ice Patches in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic 65(5):1-21. (download)
Beattie O., B. Apland, E. Blake, J. Cosgrove, S. Gaunt, S. Greer, A. Mackie, K. Mackie, D. Straathof, V. Thorp & P. Troffe 2000. The Kwäday Dän Ts’ìnchi Discovery from a Glacier in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Archaeology (24): 129–147.
Dove, C., P.G. Hare and M. Heacker 2005. Identification of Ancient Feather Fragments Found in Melting Alpine Ice Patches in Southern Yukon. Arctic 58(1):38-43. (download)
Farnell, R. et al. 2004. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Alpine Ice Patches in Southwest Yukon, Canada: Paleoenvironmental and Paleobiological Investigations. Arctic 57(3):247-259. (download)
Greer, S. and D. Strand 2012. Cultural Landscapes, Past and Present, and the South Yukon Ice Patches. Arctic 65(5):136-152. (download)
Hare, P.G. 2011. The Frozen Past: The Yukon Ice Patches. Whitehorse, Yukon: Government of Yukon. (download)
Hare P.G. et al. 2004. Ethnographic and Archaeological Investigations of Alpine Ice Patches in Southwest Yukon, Canada. Arctic 57(3):260-272. (download)
Hare, P.G. et al. 2012. The Archaeology of Yukon Ice Patches: New artifacts, observations, and insights. Arctic 65(5):118-135. (download)
Hebda, R.J., S. Greer & A.P Mackie (eds.) 2017. Kwäday Dän Ts’inchi: Teachings from Long Ago Person Found. Royal BC Museum Publications,
Helwig, K., V. Monahan and J. Poulin 2008. The identification of hafting adhesive on a slotted antler point from a southwest Yukon ice patch. American Antiquity 73(2):279(210).
Helwig, K., V. Monahan, J. Poulin & T. Andrews 2013. Ancient projectile weapons from ice patches in Northwestern Canada: Identification of resin and compound resin-ochre hafting adhesives. Journal of Archaeological Science 41:655-665. (download)
Helwig, K. et al. 2021. Ancient throwing dart reveals first archaeological evidence of castoreum. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 37, 10294. (download)
Keddie, G. and E. Nelson 2005. An Arrow from the Tsitsutl Glacier, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 29: 113-123. (download)
Kuzyk, G.W., Russell, D.E., Farnell, R.S., Gotthardt, R.M., Hare, P.G., and Blake, E. 1999. In pursuit of prehistoric caribou on Thandlät, southern Yukon. Arctic 52(2):214 – 219. (download)


Dixon, E.J., W.F. Manley and C.M. Lee 2005. The Emerging Archaeology of Glaciers and Ice Patches: Examples from Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. American Antiquity 70(1):129-143.
Jason M. LaBelle, Kelton A, Meyer 2021. Paleoecological and Archaeological Investigation of the ROMO 9 Ice Patch, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 5 (2021) 51–71.
Lee, C.M. 2012. Withering snow and ice in mid-latitudes: A new archaeological and paleobiological record for the Rocky Mountain region. Arctic 65(5):165-177. (download)
Lee, C.M., J.B. Benedict, and J.B. Lee 2006. Ice Patches and Remnant Glaciers: Paleontological Discoveries and Archaeological Possibilities in the Colorado High Country. Southwestern Lore: Journal of Colorado Archaeology 72(1):27-43. (download)
Lee, Craig, Robert L Kelly, Rachel Reckin, Ira Matt, and Pei-Lin Yu. 2014. Ice Patch Archaeology in Western North America. The SAA Archaeological Record 14(2): 15–19. (download)
Sgouros, R. & M. Stimm 2015. An Ice Patch Artifact and Paleobiological Specimen from the Teton Mountains, Wyoming, USA. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 2: 3-24. (download)
Vanderhoek, R., B. Wygal, R. Tedor & C. Holmes 2007. Survey and Monitoring of Ice Patches in the Denali Highway Region, Central Alaska, 2003-2005. Alaska Journal of Anthropology vol. 5, no.2: 67-86. (download)
VanderHoek, R. et al. 2012. Ice Patch Archaeology in Alaska: 2000–10. Arctic 65(5):153-164. (download)
Vanderhoek, R., R.M. Tedor and J.D. McMahan 2007. Report. Cultural Materials Recovered from Ice Patches in the Denali Highway Region, Central Alaska, 2003-2005. Alaska Journal of Anthropology vol. 5, no.2: 185-200.


Clarke, J. et al. 2021. Mongolia’s frozen heritage. Journal of Glacial Archaeology 5 (2021) 103–120.
Taylor, W. et al. 2019. Investigating reindeer pastoralism and exploitation of high mountain zones in northern Mongolia through ice patch archaeology. PLOS ONE (read here)
Taylor, W. et al. 2021. High altitude hunting, climate change, and pastoral resilience in eastern Eurasia. Nature Scientific Report 11, 14287. (download)